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Vets Report Document

ZiwiPeak is developed with the natural nutritional demands of cats and dogs in mind.

When we can fulfill these demands, we create a foundation for a balanced life, where the three layers of life: physical, energetic and emotional are in balance or even in synergy.

ZiwiPeak adapts its food, its pure raw ingredients and processing techniques to the natural needs of the animal, and takes into consideration the environmental impact of its sourcing.

ZiwiPeak is an excellent starting point for the overall well-being of cats and dogs, but owners and veterinarians have to be aware that enough physical and mental challenges are needed for the pets to live a happy life.

This leaflet explains shortly the background of the holistic approach of the brand ZiwiPeak and the main functions of its ingredients.

Joep Lupgens, BSc MVSc DVM


Feeding cats and dogs the meat-based diets that nature intended, provides their bodies with the natural sustenance and energy that they need to get the most out of life. Synthesized products ultimately will not help pets to reach the peak of good health.

ZiwiPeak air-dried formula contains more than 80% pure animal-derived ingredients - not only meat, but also offals as eaten in nature.

A balance between meat and offals or organs is important as both bring different amino-acid patterns and other building blocks for the 3 pillars of good health. Not only the physical component (muscles, bones, immune system) is supported by good food, but also the energy flow Qi through the meridians is thought to be influenced by it.

Recent research shows that Emotional well-being is directly influenced by the amino-acid L-tryptophan. High contents of animal protein with natural occurring tryptophan reduces dominance-associated aggression, and supports healthy sleep cycles (by conversion into serotonin).

ZiwiPeak moist formula contains more than 60% pure animal derived ingredients - again balanced as animals feed themselves in nature.

ZiwiPeak has selected 3 different species to source its animal proteins: venison, lamb and fish.

All Lamb and Venison products are sourced from animals of New Zealand origin and are slaughtered and processed through licensed export plants and passed fit for human consumption.


The various raw materials are collected from the Export Licensed Plants and transported to our specialised pet food processing factories in both the North and South Islands. Due to local sourcing and processing we can execute a ‘total quality control' and monitor the environmental impact.


New Zealand Government Veterinarian Inspectors sign each Health Certificate for all our products. The Health Certificates state that New Zealand meat products are free of the following:

"African horse sickness, African swine fever, anthrax, avian influenza (fowl plague), bluetongue disease, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE),Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis, Brucella suis, classical swine fever (hog cholera), contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, foot and mouth disease, glanders, lumpy skin disease,Newcastle disease (an asymptomatic strain exists in New Zealand), peste des petits ruminants, rabies, Rift Valley Fever, rinderpest, scrapie, sheep and goat pox, swine vesicular disease and vesicular stomatitis do not occur in New Zealand". This statement is on all Export Health Certificates and is signed by a New Zealand Government Veterinarian Inspector.



Our lamb products come from ‘real' lamb: young sheep under 12 months of age which do not have any permanent incisors in wear. The lambs are farmed raised, and free of antibiotics and hormones. All lambs are inspected pre- and post-mortem by a veterinary colleague and declared fit for human consumption. Pure, young lamb meat and offals/organs are considered to be hypo-allergenic, and together it brings an excellent quantity and ratio of essential amino-acids. Please keep in mind that huge differences between the quality and processing techniques of lamb-containing pet foods exist. The ZiwiPeak lamb meat and offals (liver, lung, heart, kidney, tripe) are ‘low-ash', avoiding an unnatural burden on of your dogs' or cats' internal organs. The lamb in ZiwiPeak Dry is air-dried during the manufacturing of the product and not extruded under high temperature and pressure. This gentle process maintains the quality of the essential amino-acids and poly-unsaturated fatty acids composition of the raw ingredients.


Our venison (cervine) is farm raised, and -like our lambs-veterinary inspected pre- and post-mortem, and declared fit for human consumption. These animals are of course free of antibiotics and hormones. Venison is considered to be a ‘novel protein' and hypo-allergenic. ZiwiPeak uses different meat (striated) parts of the venison, together with the essential offals (the whole venison is consumed in the wild): muscle, heart, tongue, liver, trim, skirt, tripe,

kidney, lung lobes. The latter has a relative high and beneficial tryptophan percentage. The tripe is only cold washed and cut, bringing an abundance of different nutritional elements. Using all the parts with the different natural layers (parenchymal, parietal) balances and above all, extends the building blocks offered in ZiwiPeak, like in nature. Natural occurring GAGs (from connective tissues), carbohydrates, essential amino- and fatty acids, vitamines (liver) and enzymes support the well-being of pet animals fed ZiwiPeak. The gentle manufacturing processes of ZiwiPeak protect the integrity of

the natural occuring building blocks. Again, it's the interaction between unique sources and processing to offer nature's best.





Our fish (and oil) is derived from the Hoki fish, or Blue Grenadier, or Macruronus Novaezaelandia.

This species is silvery with a purplish or bluish-green tinge above. The fins of live fish are dark blue. It grows to about 1.1 m in length and a weight of about 6 kg. The Blue Grenadier is a commercially important bottom-dwelling species that is found inshore as juveniles and in continental slope waters of Australia and New Zealand at depths from 450 m to 800 m as adults.

The Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) certified the New Zealand hoki fishery in 2001 as environmental-friendly and sustainable. A code of practice to avoid by-catch of other species has been in place for many years.

Our hoki fish is a real hypo-allergenic novel protein. It's an excellent source of niacin and vitamin B12. It will come as no surprise we use the whole hoki fish for our ZiwiPeak pet foods (the hoki oil comes from a different processing plant). Whole fish includes not only the costly fleshy servings, but also all the other nutritious parts,

bringing natural occurring carbo's, vitamins and minerals, fatty and amino-acids, and GAGs, in their natural state and ratio. ZiwiPeak processing technologies maintain these nutritional values in the end-product.

Whole hoki is a lean fish, giving us the opportunity to balance the different sources of energy and other building blocks - again the approach of balancing the physical, energetic and emotional elements brought by the food itself.



We use 2 different sources of fatty acids, depending on the product formula: fish oil and flax seed oil. We have already introduced the hoki (blue grenadier) fish, its extracted oil has a high percentage of omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids. The most remarkable of the PUFA-profile -and one of the main reasons for chosing hoki oil - is the high percentage of long-chain (C-20, C-22) fats: EPA and DHA, well-known for their direct anti-inflammatory properties and positive modulation of the immune response.

In the moist product we use flax seed oil. Flaxseed is a rich and unique vegetarian source of alpha-linolenic acid, the parent compound of the omega-3 family (see Schedule page 8).

Flaxseed contains 3 times more omega-3 than omega-6 fatty acids. Linolenic acid is the precursor of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and of docosahexenoic acid (DHA).

ABBREVIATIONS frequently used

EFA      Essential Fatty Acid
PUFA    Poly-unsaturated Fatty Acid
LA         Linoleic acid
GLA      Gamma-linolenic acid
DGLA    Dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid
AA         Arachidonic acid
ALA       Alpha-linolenic acid
EPA       Eicosa-pentaenoic acid
DHA       Docosa-hexaenoic acid





To manufacture a wholesome pet food we have to add several minerals, even when we use the best raw ingredients like in ZiwiPeak. The bioavailability of normally added minerals is low: minerals are poorly absorbed in the digestive tract. ZiwiPeak found a natural solution by using so-called ‘chelated minerals'. Let us explain.


Why are minerals poorly absorbed?

1. Several minerals are insoluble. Only soluble compounds can get near the mucosal, absorbing cells of the digestive tract and can get transported from the gut into the bloodstream.

2. Mineral components carry an electric charge.

a. Positive charged mineral ions recombine with other, negative charged partners and form insoluble compounds, which are excreted by the body.

b. When the (positive) electrically charged mineral ions do not form an insoluble compound, their charge prevents them from being absorbed; the transport through the mucosal membrane is selective and low for several electrical charged ions.

What are ‘chelated minerals'?

‘Chela' is the Greek word for claw. Certain amino acids or partially hydrolyzed proteins can bind chemically to the minerals forming a heterocyclic ring, producing a claw-like grip. The average weight of the hydrolyzed amino acids (or protein) must be approximately 150 and the resulting molecular weight of the chelate must not exceed 800. This process of binding is called ‘chelation', resulting in ‘chelated minerals'. Chelation is a process that occurs in nature: minerals bind ‘in vivo' to amino acids. Using chelated minerals is ‘natural' for ZiwiPeak.


Why are chelated minerals better?

1. The amino acid or protein ‘claws' shield the minerals from interacting with other components in the intestinal tract. These 'claws' neutralize the electrical charge of minerals, thus preventing the forming of insoluble mineral compounds which are excreted.

2. The amino acid or protein claws form a highly soluble complex with the minerals.

3. The dogs' or cats' body is efficient in absorbing amino acids from the digestive tract - the minerals chelated to these amino acids are now absorbed with the same efficiency, so they get a free ride!

4. Not-chelated minerals can bind to veterinary therapeuticslike doxycyclin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and erythromycin. When minerals bind to drugs the quantities of bioavailable drugs and minerals are decreased. Chelated minerals will not bind to these drugs, and herefore they will not decrease the effectiveness of these drugs, nor will the quantity of bioavailabe minerals be decreased.

By using chelated minerals in ZiwiPeak we increase the bioavailability of these minerals with approximately 40% and decrease the excretion of valuable minerals, reducing the environmental impact of animal stools.

The improved mineral absorption ensures that the dog or cat is receiving the mineral requirements necessary for optimum health and performance. The mineral requirements are absolute (the quantity absorbed) and relative (the ratio between the different minerals). ZiwiPeak uses the following chelated minerals in its air-dried formula: iron, copper, manganese, zinc and selenium.



‘Low-ash' raw material is a sign of pure quality with no cross-contamination of wool or hooves. ‘High-ash' means an increased mineral content in the product, leading to a higher, uncontrolled absorption in the gastro-intestinal tract. The overage minerals with their electrical charges can harm the mucous layer of jejunum, ileum and duodenum, and can harm fatty acids both in cell membranes as in the food offered. The overage minerals can partly be excreted directly with the stools, but also after g.i. absorption with the urine production. This will increase the saturation of the minerals in the urine, with a higher incidence of uroliths, urinary stones, leading to damage and even obstruction. ZiwiPeak uses only low-ash lamb and venison.


Dogs develop uroliths mainly in combination with bacterial infections, which increase urine pH. A good responding immune system, enhanced by good nutrition, will increase the resistance to bacteria. Inflammation of the bladder wall will be decreased by omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids, found in fish oil (ZiwiPeak Cuisine Dry) and flax seed oil (ZiwiPeak Cuisine Can). The integrity of the bladder wall will be supported by glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), found in Green Lipped and Blue Mussels (ZiwiPeak Cuisine Dry and Can).


Cats fed a natural, feral diet don't show any signs of lower urinary tract diseases, like blockage with bladder stones. Many cats fed dry, extruded pet food over the last 25 years showed a higher occurrence of struvite stones. Pet food manufacturers found out that decreasing the urine-pH reduced the incidence of these struvite stones (magnesium-ammonium-phosphate). Over the last decade the incidence of Calcium-oxalate-stones increased, due to the decrease of the urine-pH - one problem was replaced by the other, a typical example of focusing on one problem, and not looking to the animal as a whole integrated living being.

Uroliths are formed when the components are saturated in an urine with a certain pH. ZiwiPeak prevents the saturation of the different components by a limited uptake (low-ash raw material, controlled addition of chelated minerals) and regulates the urine pH in a natural way by influencing the base excess with the mineral and amino-acid composition of its ingredients. The unique high percentage of animal proteins (meat and offals, over 80% in the ZiwiPeak Dry formula, over 60% in the ZiwiPeak Can Formula) is the basis of a natural, mild-acidic urine, in the same range as cats and dogs in the wild (6.4 - 6.6). Between individual animals and during diferent life-stages we notice small varieties - no cat nor dog is the same! As the animals are in good physical and emotional balance (immune system, organ integrity, stress resistance) they can handle different challenges easier.



ZiwiPeak uses Green-lipped mussels (Perna canaliculus) in several formula's. The mussels are farm-raised in New-Zealand and are harvested and collected daily. As mussels are suspension feeders (filter plankton), no feed is used in the farming of these mussels like with other molluscs. There is no negative impact on the natural ecosystem. The Blue Ocean Institute in New York voted mussel farming practices as the worlds most eco-friendly seafood.

Over the last decade, many beneficial properties of mussels were discovered. Most obvious is the anti-inflammatory actions due to the unique PUFA patterns (40% omega-3!, of which 24% EPA! And 10% DHA), and the cartilage repairing function, due to the inclusion of different GAGs (chondroitin and glucosamine). Due to this combination of PUFAs and GAGs we see improvements in joint function, reducing morning stiffness, joint pains caused by arthritis and arthrosis. Also bladder wall integrity will be supported by this combination.

Mussels are difficult and expensive to process in pet food. Due to the gentle manufacturing processes of ZiwiPeak our dogs and cats are able to use all the different building blocks of the green-lipped used in its ZiwiPeak. ZiwiPeak uses a high inclusion in several formula's to improve effectiveness, which is clearly labelled.




ZiwiPeak uses kelp (also known as rockweed or Ascophyllum nodosum) in its dry formula’s. Kelp is a brown seaweed, has long fronds without a midrib and narrow, unflattered, straplike blades with air bladders that grow singly and are scattered throughout the plant. Kelp has been reported to have a life span of about 20 years and is the dominant species of the sheltered and semi-exposed intertidal zone. Environmentally sound hand harvesting techniques are used to safeguard the natural resource and to ensure only Ascophyllum nodosum is harvested. Its a highly nutritious vegetable: high in magnesium and protein, vitamin A, iodine, bromine, and phosphorous. Also contains sugar, starch, vitamin C, vitamin K, vitamin E, zinc, potassium, calcium, sodium, sulfur, chloride, silicon, iron, manganese, copper, zinc, cobalt, titanium,

hydrogen, molybdenum, lead, barium, boron, radium, and trace elements. The minerals are naturally chelated.


ZiwiPeak uses chicory (Cichorium intybus) in its dry formula’s. Chicory is a blue-flowered plant with a long white root and a long history. Chicory was already cultivated 5000 years ago by Egyptians. The root extract of the chicory is used for ZiwiPeak Dry, and is free of gluten, fat, protein, phytic acid, pesticides, toxins and allergens. All chicory plants are non-GMO. The chicory root extract contains inulin. Inulin is a soluble dietary fibre. The fructoses in the chicory belong to the group of fructans, one of the most effective prebiotics. The prebiotics of ZiwiPeaks’ chicory are fermentated in the last part of the gastro-intestinal tract, the colon. Fermentation is a conversion into biological active components, here into the so called Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFA) like acetate, propionate, butyrate and lactic acid. These SCFA’s provide building blocks and energy for the colonocytes, the cells that make up the lining of the colon. This improves the gut mucosal barrier, which is more resistant to lesions and inflammation. A healthy gut can better resist attacks of bacteria, with a reduced risk on gut-related diseases like diarrhea and colon cancer. The fermentation process stimulates also the development of good bacteria like Lactobacillus and Bifido-bacteria (bifidogenic effect), and suppresses the development of bad bacteria like Escherichia coli (E.coli).


ZiwiPeak uses parsley (Petroselinum) in its air-dried formula’s. Parsley contains chlorophyll and essential oils like myristicin, limonene and 1,3,8-p-menthatriene; minor components are mono- and sesquiterpenes. Parsley works as a diureticum and detoxifies the body. It’s known to freshen the breath.


ZiwiPeak uses lecithin in its dry formula’s. Lecithin is known to support fat metabolism and preventing obesity. It also supports the development of a glossy coat, but recent scientific research has shown more beneficial properties, not only on physical but also on energetic and the cognitive level.

Lecithin is absorbed into the mucosal cells of the small intestine, mainly in the duodenum and upper jejunum, following some digestion by the pancreatic enzyme phospholipase, producing lysophosphatidylcholine (lysolecithin). Phosphatidylcholine is also metabolized to choline, fatty acids and glycerol. The fatty acids and glycerol either get oxidized to produce energy or become involved in lipogenesis. Choline is a precursor of acetylcholine.

Phosphatidylcholine may be indicated to help restore liver function. It may also be indicated for the treatment of some manic conditions. There is some evidence that Phosphatidylcholine may be useful in the management of Alzheimer's disease and some other cognitive disorders. ZiwiPeak includes lecithin to address the animals’ well-being on different interconnected levels.


ZiwiPeak uses sodium tripolyphoshphate (TPP) in its canned formula’s. TPP prevents the calcification of dental plaque into tartar by binding calcium in the saliva.


ZiwiPeak is developed with the natural needs of your cat or dog in mind. We address with this product the different levels that make your cat or dog so unique.

We adapted the ingredients and the processing technogies (air-drying, retort cooking) to ensure peak health by imitating nature.

Only natural ingredients with no negative environmental impact, mainly locally sourced are used.

As dogs are mainly carnivores (but official omnivores) and cats are obligate carnivores we include a unique high percentage animal derived ingredients.

ZiwiPeak does NOT use any grains or other fillers – the label indications are clear!

Switch slowly from any other pet food to ZiwiPeak. ZiwiPeak is cleaner and higher digestible compared to any other product available. We analysed the protein digestibility: over 94% ! This means a very high uptake in the gastro-intestinal tract, resulting in small stool volumes.

The purity of the ingredients will have a cleaning effect on the animal. Cats and dogs fed grain-based pet foods, with unnatural additives, colorants, preservatives, can have food related disturbances, varying from food sensitivities, intolerances to allergies. Skin inflammations, dull coat, diarrhea, reduced resistance to infections, but also: reduced energy, lack of attention, no interaction with other animals or family members.

The internal cleaning of the cat or dog can take weeks, in the worst case even up to 2 to 3 months. First the whole internal system has to be cleaned up, followed by an improvement of the immune status.

Step by step we will see improvements in both the outlook of the pet animal and its behaviour.

In the end, ZiwiPeak will support the maintenance of the three interwoven layers of a long and happy life: physical resistance, energy and emotional stability.

September 2006, The Netherlands

Dr Joep Lupgens